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It is a common method of digitising printed texts so that they can be electronically edited, searched, stored more compactly, displayed on-line, and used in machine processes such as cognitive computing, machine translation, (extracted) text-to-speech, key data and text mining.OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and computer vision.When electronic equipment is not employed the 'receiver' is a person visually observing and interpreting a signal, which may be either simple (such as the presence of a beacon fire) or complex (such as lights using color codes or flashed in a Morse code sequence).Free-space optical communication has been deployed in space, while terrestrial forms are naturally limited by geography, weather and the availability of light.Optical mineralogy is used to identify the mineralogical composition of geological materials in order to help reveal their origin and evolution.Some of the properties and techniques used include: William Nicol, whose name is associated with the creation of the Nicol prism, seems to have been the first to prepare thin slices of mineral substances, and his methods were applied by Henry Thronton Maire Witham (1831) to the study of plant petrifactions.The trapped electrons form para-magnetic centers and give rise to certain signals that can be detected under an ESR spectrometry.
It is widely used as a form of information entry from printed paper data records, whether passport documents, invoices, bank statements, computerised receipts, business cards, mail, printouts of static-data, or any suitable documentation.
Optical mineralogy is the study of minerals and rocks by measuring their optical properties.
Most commonly, rock and mineral samples are prepared as thin sections or grain mounts for study in the laboratory with a petrographic microscope.
This article is largely based on an article in the out-of-copyright Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, which was produced in 1911.
It should be brought up to date to reflect subsequent history or scholarship (including the references, if any).
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Electron spin resonance dating can be described as trapped charge dating.